(1) Learning design is the application of learning design knowledge when developing a concrete unit of learning (a course, a lesson, a curriculum).
(2) Learning Design (LD) is a formal specification of
learning design, providing a conceptual model for the description of
teaching and learning processes. This specification consists of three
different items: an information model, a best practice and
implementation guide, and an XML binding with a binding document (Kopper
and Tattersall 2005).